Astrahanskaya 83, Saratov, 410012, Russia, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. Deschampsia antarctica, nome comum erva-pilosa-antártica, é uma espécie de planta com flor pertencente à família Poaceae.Foi descrita por Étienne-Émile Desvaux e publicado em Flora Chilena 6: 338. Fundamental adaptations to abiotic environmental factors that qualitatively distinguish them from the other vascular plants of extreme regions, namely temperature, ultraviolet radiation hardiness, and their genetic plasticity in the changeable environment are discussed. Google Scholar. Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.) Parnikoza, I.Yu., Kozeretskaya, I.A., Miryuta, N.Yu., et al., Environmental determination of interpopulation heterogeneity of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. 504–511. shkola molodykh uchenykh “Embriologiya, genetika i biotekhnologiya”, 3–8 dekabrya 2007 g.: Tez. Russian Journal of Developmental Biology 73, no. 665–670. Plant, 2002, vol. Bot., 1995, vol. Volodymirska 64, Kyiv, 01033, Ukraine, You can also search for this author in 31, pp. Hill, P.W., Farrar, J., Roberts, P., et al., Vascular plant success in a warming Antarctic may be due to efficient nitrogen acquisition, Nat. (Poaceae) (2n = 26), is one of the only two flowering plant species found in Antarctica [1, 2]. Cambridge Philos. Parodi, L.R., Las Gramineas sudamericanas del genero Deschampsia, Darviniana, 1949, vol. 14, pp. Press, 1995. 1, pp. 1685–1693. Skottsberg, G., Antarctic flowering plants, Botanisk Svensk Tidsskrift, 1954, vol. Biol., 2007, vol. 468–473. PubMed Google Scholar. 38–44. Abstracts, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2008, p. 32. The other is Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis), an herb. 3, pp. 72–79. Deschampsia antarctica3 E. Desv. 308–318. Xu, Z. and Li, J., in Proc. Grant, V., Vidoobrazovanie u rastenii (Speciation in Plants), Moscow: Mir, 1984. 1632–1639. 3, pp. A. Kozeretska & S. V. Demidov, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. 2, pp. from South Shetland Island, Maritime Antarctic, Environ. The Antarctic Hair Grass grows to 3-5cm. Nats. and Yudakova, O.I., The development of the embryo and endosperm in the absence of pollination in Poa pratensis L., in II Mezhdunar. The most commonly found photosynthetic organisms in the Maritime Antarctic and continental edge are lichens (around 380 species) and bryophytes (130 species). (Abstr. 53–62. 32, no. 96, no. Lyakh, V.A. 123–124. 10, pp. Arkt. Ushakova, D.N. Zinn, K.E., Tunc-Ozdemir, M., and Harper, J.F., Temperature stress and plant sexual reproduction: uncovering the weakest links, J. Exp. Zh., 2008, vol. Hayase, H., Satake, T., Nishiyama, I., et al., Male sterility caused by cooling treatment at the meiotic stage in rice plants. Lond., B, 1982, vol. 15, no. 75–80. 381–395. Kolesnichenko, A.V. 32–46. CAS  D. antarctica has successfully adapted to the harshest environmental conditions (extremely low temperatures, drought, high salinity and flooding, high level of UV radiation, low precipitation). Biochem., 2010, vol. Article  PubMed Central  Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., et al., Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications, Biol. Gielwanowska, I., Pastorczyk, M., and Kellmann-Sopyla, W., Influence of environmental changes on physiology and development of polar vascular plants, Papers Global Change, 2011, no. 71–83. Deschampsia antarctica — Deschampsia cinsinə aid ot bitkisi. II. Stress Physiol. Fowbert, J.A., and Lewis Smith, R.I., Rapid population increases in native vascular plants in the Argentine islands, Antarctic Peninsula, Arctic Alpine Res., 1994, vol. nauch. Dissertation, Irkutsk, 2000. 26, no. In order to identify the possible adaptations of the D. antarctica reproductive system to adverse environmental conditions, comparative cytoembryological analysis of plants of this species growing on the Antarctic Peninsula with plants of the closely related species D. beringensis Hult. 1, pp. 279–289. Sci. 103–117. from the Kamchatka Peninsula was conducted. J. Antarktida ərazisində yetişən iki çiçəkləyən bitkidən biridir. Google Scholar. 1109–1119. It is the area around, and including, the South Pole. volume 47, pages138–146(2016)Cite this article. Possible causes and significance of these differences are discussed. 2, pp. 20, no. Genet. The most sensitive stage to cooling and the fertilizing ability of pistils, Proc. Nauk, 2004. 60, no. in Maritime Antarctica: a species uniqueness or a long-term adaptive strategies?, Ukr. Original Russian Text © O.I. Provide students in small groups a range of im… Flowering buds of plants growing in their natural habitats on King George Island and generative tissues of both plant species grown in a greenhouse were analyzed. Antarctica - Antarctica - Plant life: The cold desert climate of Antarctica supports only an impoverished community of cold-tolerant land plants that are capable of surviving lengthy winter periods of total or near-total darkness during which photosynthesis cannot take place. 4, pp. 903–916. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062360416030073, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062360416030073, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 117–129. Saratov. “Russia in the Antarctic,” April 12–14, 2006), St. Petersburg, 2006, pp. This fine, green leaved plant is perennial meaning in lives for around two years. CAS  Rev. 1959–1968. to oxidative stress under Antarctic conditions, Ukr. 83, no. 3, pp. The embryology of two species, Deschampsia antarctica, a native species, and Poa annua, an alien species in the Antarctic we studied. Ruhland, C.T., Xiong, F.S., Clark, W.D., and Day, T.A., The influence of ultraviolet-b radiation on growth, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids of Deschampsia antarctica during springtime ozone depletion in Antarctica, Photochem. Article  In addition, the Antarctic Hair Grass contains dehydrin proteins which prevent dehydration and help protect the plant against injuries related to … Zuniga, G.E., Alberdi, M., and Corcuera, L.J., Non-structural carbohydrates in Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Rev., 2007, vol. 1–30. 49, no. 121–130. Arctic poppies are one of the most northerly growing plants in the world. BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae) plants growing in three different habitats (a dry site in the Antarctic tundra, a wet site in a zone exposed to sea spray and a greenhouse) were investigated. 94, pp. Parnikoza, I., Convey, P., Dykyy, I., et al., Current status of the Antarctic herb tundra formation in the central Argentine islands, Global Change Biol., 2009, no. Deschampsia antarctica3 E. Desv. 15, pp. Article  Greenberg, A.K. Google Scholar. 1, pp. No unique adaptations of seed reproduction system that are inherent exclusively to D. antarctica were found. Culley, T.M. II. 1637–1652. 105–121. 5833–5838. World Wildlife Fund. Yudakova, O.I., Gutorova, O.V., and Belyachenko, Yu.A., Metody issledovaniya reproduktivnykh struktur i organov rastenii: Ucheb.-metod. 1/4, pp. One adaptation of D. antartica is that it expresses antifreeze proteins constitutively, which allow it to tolerate freezing temperatures 5. 61, no. Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis are the only vascular plants to have colonized the Maritime Antarctic, which is characterized by its permanently low temperature and frequent summer frosts. https://doi.org/10.3103/S0095452715020085, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3103/S0095452715020085, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in (Poaceae) (2n = 26) is one of the two vascular plants adapted to the harshest environment of the Antarctic. PubMed Central  Byull. - 211.14.175.50. The coastal flats and lowlands of the Antarctic are extremely harsh environments, so the Antarctic Hair Grass prefers sheltered areas next to mosses or crevices in between rocks. 7, pp. Moore, D.M., Studies in Colobantus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. The Antarctic Hair Grass has adapted to the Antarctic region. 18, pp. Smith, R.C., Stammerjohn, S.E., and Baker, K.S., Surface air temperature variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula region, in Foundations for Ecological Research West of Antarctic Peninsula (Antarctic Research Series, vol. Pearce, R.S., Molecular analysis of acclimation to cold, Plant Growth Reg., 1999, vol. PubMed Central  Alexander, M.P., Differential staining of aborted and nonaborted pollen, Stain Technol., 1969, no. Informizely customer feedback surveys Google Scholar. 101, pp. Ozheredova, I.P., Parnikoza, I.Y., Poronnik, O.O., et al., The mechanisms of Antarctic vascular plants adaptation to abiotic environmental factors, Cytol. 56, no. 81, no. Key words: Deschampsia antarctica, anatomical features, mesophyll cells, ultrastructure, stress condition, Poaceae, Antarctica, phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic response. 970–979. Gronland, Biosci., 1990, vol. Domaciuk, M., Szczuka, E., Gielwanowska, I., et al., Structure of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Cardone, S., Sawatani, P., and Rush, P., Karyological studies in Deschampsia antarctica Desv. posobie (Methods of Study of Reproductive Structures and Organs of Plants: A Handbook), Saratov: Izd. Genet. “Rossiya v Antarktike,” S.-Peterburg, 12–14 aprelya 2006 g., Tezisy dokladov (Proc. 182, pp. Kozeretskaya, I.Yu. Instead it prefers secluded areas next to mosses and inside crevices. 19, pp. 2, pp. Alberdi, M. and Corcuera, L.J., Cold acclimation in plants, Phytochemistry, 1991, vol. Biol. A fine-leaved, perennial grass, the Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia Antarctica) is one of only two flowering plant species living below latitudes of 60 degrees in the Antarctic.Its leaf blades are folded when young, then developing into long, dark green, rigid stems, as with the rest of the family Deschampsia. Alberdi, M., Bravo, L.A., Gutierrez, A., et al., Ecophysiology of Antarctic vascular plants, Physiol. Huiskes, A.H.L., Convey, P., and Bergstom, D.M., Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems, in Antarctica as a Global Indicator, Springer-Verlag, 2006, pp. Bot. 92, no. Genet., 2005, vol. Dissertation, St. Petersburg, 2013. “Rossiya v Antarktike”, 12–14 aprelya 2006 g. (Abstr. Google Scholar. Google Scholar. and Bednarek, P.T., Genetic and epigenetic studies on populations of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Google Scholar. It is perennial, and turns yellowish-white as it withers. 4, pp. Bot., 2005, vol. Its aqueous extract (EDA) exhibits anti- photoaging in human skin cells, such as inhibition of MMPs, directly associated with extrinsic aging. RESUMEN 3. “Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture 2006 and Beyond,” Beijing, August 13–18, 2006, Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag, 2008. Soper, T., Antarctica: a Guide to the Wildlife, Chalfont St. Peter, UK: Bradt Guides, 2008. Akad. in maritime Antarctic, Polar Sci., 2007, vol. 60–69. Akad. is one of the two flowering plants that, along with Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl., was able to settle the ice-free areas of Antarctica. 411–441. and Klooster, M.R., The cleistogamous breeding system: a review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms, Bot. Antarct. Crossley, L., Explore Antarctica, Cambridge: Univ. Chinnusamy, V., Zhu, J., and Zhu, J.-K., Gene regulation during cold acclimation in plants, Physiol. 127–157. 32, no. When they start to die they turn a yellowish-white Adaptation of the seed reproduction system to conditions of Maritime Antarctic in Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv.. 1–10. 99–139. 124–125. A common adaptation among desert plants is a lack of stomata or smaller stomata. 8, pp. Selekts., 2012, vol. 60–62. Press, 2000. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. CAS  Nuelas, J.P., Sardans, J., Estiarte, M., et al., Evidence of current impact of climate change on life: a walk from genes to the biosphere, Global Change Biol., 2013, vol. Deschampsia antarctica is a Poaceae grass that has adapted to and colonized Antarctica. Zachem i pochemu? Univ., 2012b. 2, pp. Sada Saratov. II Int. Cytology and Genetics https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062360416030073. This review is based on a series of parallel analyses of distribution, ecology, and adaptation on the morphological, cellular, and molecular genetic levels, and addresses the causes of the exclusive adaptation of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Zuciga-Feest, A., Ort, D.R., Gutierrez, A., et al., Light regulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in the freezing-tolerant grass Deschampsia antarctica, Photosynth. Kalendar, R., Tanskanen, J., Chang, W., et al., Cassandra retrotransposons carry independently transcribed 5S RNA, Proc. Crop Sci. Google Scholar. Ukr. 47–76. Only two vascular plants, Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Zuciga, G.E., Zuciga-Feest, A., Inostroza, P., et al., Sugars and enzyme activity in the grass Deschampsia Antarctica, Antarct. One of the two native flowering plants of Antarctica is the Antarctic Hair Grass. The ultrastructure of the leaves of D. antarctica has not been studied before. 1, pp. 59, pp. Tyrnov, V.A. 80, no. 64, no. was studied in the Maritime Antarctica with respect to general ecological characteristics, soil conditions, viral contamination, cell nucleus area, and relative DNA content. et al. 30, pp. Jap., 1969, vol. Kupriyanov, P.G., Diagnostika sistem semennogo razmnozheniya v populyatsiyakh tsvetkovykh rastenii (Diagnosis of Seed Breeding Systems in Populations of Flowering Plants), Saratov: Izd. 5, pp. 3, p. 64. Kosakovskaya, I.V., Stressovye belki rastenii (Stress Proteins of Plants), Kyiv, 2008. 70), Ross, R.M., Hofman, E.E., and Guetin, L.B., Washington: American Geophysical Union, 1996, pp. et al. 290–296. 50, pp. CAS  1, pp. and Deschampsia antarctica Desv. PubMed  Antarctic Hair Grass Deschampsia antarctica Habitat adaptations The Antarctic fur grass does not like the lowland of Antarctic as the weather conditions are extremely harsh. Yudakova, V.S. 24, pp. Polar lipids and the composition of… 6, no. [1]É uma das duas plantas vasculares fanerógamas nativas da Antártida, sendo a outra a Colobanthus quitensis.Cada vez que há pequenos aumentos de temperatura, mais sementes … 39, no. Genet., 1995, vol. Ozheredova, I.Yu. 32, no. and Khotyleva, L.V., Geneticheskie osnovy selektsii rastenii (Genetic Basis of Plant Breeding), in 4 vols., vol. 115, no. Zh., 2003, vol. Climate Change, 2011, vol. Parnikoza, I., Kozeretska, I., and Kunakh, V., Vascular plants of the maritime Antarctic: origin and adaptation, Am. When young they have folded leaf blades then develop into long, dark green, erect stems. 5, pp. 126, no. Giełwanowska, I., Szczuka, E., Bednara, J., and Górrecki, R., Anatomical features and ultrastructure of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae) leaves from different growing habitats, Ann. Soc., 2008, vol. LXIII, nos. Cytol. 1–13. Establish what students currently know about how animals and plants are suited or have adapted to an extreme environment such as Antarctica. Gusta, L.V., Trischuk, R., and Weiser, C.J., Plant cold acclimation: the role of abscisic acid, Plant Growth Reg., 2005, vol. tr (Molecular and Applied Genetics: Collected Scientific Papers), Minsk, 2011, vol. Kunakh, V.A., Mobilni genetichni elementi i plastichnist’ genomu roslin (Transposable Genetic Elements and Genome Plasticity in Plants), Kyiv: Logos, 2013. Covered in black hair they are hardy and tough, with some surprisingly delicate yellow or white petals. tez. Zabolotnoho 150, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, ul. Hennion, F., Huiskes, A.H.L., Robinson, S., and Convey, P., Physiological traits of organisms in a changing environment, in Trends in Antarctic Terrestrial and Limnetic Ecosystems: Antarctica as a Global Indicator, Bergstrom, D.M., Ed., Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag, 2006, pp. 483–491. 51–65. 483–491. - 88.208.193.166. This plant -- Deschampsia antarctica -- grows on a few western-exposed areas of the Antarctic Peninsula, and is more commonly found on South Orkney and South Shetland islands. konf. Res., 2005, vol. Correspondence to Genet. Mulcahy, D.L., Sari-Gorla, M., and Mulcahy, G.B., Pollen selection—past, present and future, Sex. Taran, N.Yu., Batsmanova, L.M., and Okanenko, O.A., Adaptive responses of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Kyryachenko, S.S., Kozeretska, I.A., and Rakusa-Suszczewski, S., The genetic and molecular biological enigma of Deschampsia antarctica in Antarctica, Cytol. 1985, Lewis-Smith (Poaceae), Polar Biol., 2009, vol. 70. It was found that both species are characterized by sexual mode of reproduction, equal size of pollen grains (25.5 ± 2.2 and 26.2 ± 1.9 μm, respectively), same features of the embryo sac structure, and emryo- and endospermogenesis. Philipp, M., Bocher, J., Mattson, O., and Woodell, S.R.J., A quantitative approach to the sexual reproductive biology and population structure of some arctic flowering plants: Dryas integrifolia, Silene acaulis and Ranunculus nivalis, Meddr. Univ., 1989. Acad. (Poaceae), one of two unique native angiosperms that inhabits the Antarctic regions, one of the harshest ecosystems of the world (Edwards & Lewis-Smith 1988, Zufiiga et al. Purdy, B.G. adaptation to the harsh environmental Antarctic conditions, but rather to a plastic response of the phenotype to ameliorated growth conditions in the laboratory. Nogler, G.A., Gametophytic apomixis, in Embryology of Angiosperms, Johri, B.M., Ed., Berlin: Springer, 1984, pp. Bot. The Antarctic Pearlwort … Demidov, V.A. Navuk Ukr., 2009, vol. Parnikoza, O.O. 336–348. Spangengern, G., et al., WO Patent 049835 A1, 2005. http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?IA=AU2004001633&DISPLAY=DESC. Surv. Antarctic hair grass ( Deschampsia antarctica ) is one of only two flowering plants that grow in Antarctica. Ecol. Desv., Byull. Geodakyan, V.A., Evolutionary theory of sex, Priroda, 1991, no. Soc., 2005, vol. Nats. 72–80. Specific environmental conditions have restricted the number of native angiosperm species to only two—Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) and Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae).Deschampsia antarctica, Antarctic hairgrass (family Poaceae), is the only natural grass … Nkongolo, K.K., Deck, A., and Michael, P., Molecular and cytological analysis of Deschampsia cespitosa population from Northern Ontario (Canada), Genome, 2001, vol. Bot., 1971, vol. Otd., Ross. Photobiol., 2005, vol. 1189–1196. Inst. Bot., 2005, vol. Oliver, S.N., van Dongen, J.T., and Alfred, S.C., Coldinduced repression of the rice anther-specific cell wall invertase gene osinv4 in correlated with sucrose accumulation and pollen sterility, Plant Cell Environ., 2005, no. 49, No. 1, nos. 31, pp. dokl. Native species of the Antarctic Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis exist at the limits of survival of vascular plants. Ontogeneticheskaya plastichnost’ genoma kak osnova adaptivnosti rastenii (Zherbakov Memorial Conf. Biol., 1993, no. Rast., 1994, vol. laceae), which together with Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv., Poaceae) are the only two flowering plant species considered native to maritime Antarctica. Mol. PubMed  Geogr., Sib. Taxonomy, distribution and relationships, Br. Plant, 2006, vol. It has yellow flowers and grows about 5 cm (two inches) tall, with a cushion-like growth habit that gives it a moss-like appearance. Gerighausen, U.T.A., Brautinam, K., Mustafa, O., et al., Expansion of vascular plants on an Antarctic island—a consequence of climate change?, in Antarctic Biology in Global Context, Netherlands: Backhuys, 2003, pp. Known as the Antarctic Hair Grass, is one of two native plants to the Antarctic region. J. 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The ultrastructure of the leaves of D. antarctica has not been studied before. Deschampsia antarctica plants were collected in Robert Island, Maritime Antarctica, and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Parnikoza, O. O. Poronnik & V. A. Kunakh, You can also search for this author in Convey, P., Gibson, J.A.E., Hillenbrand, C.-D., et al., Antarctic terrestrial life—challenging the history of the frozen continent? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein. PubMed  © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Parnikoza, I.Yu., Kozeretskaya, I.A., Miryuta, N.Yu., et al., Environmentally caused interpopulation heterogeneity of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. 213–220. Lyakh, V.A., Microgametophyte selection and its role in the evolution of angiosperms, Tsitol. ... Deschampsia Antarctica. 234–239. 44, no. 82, pp. Antarctic Conf. Parnikoza, I.Yu., Inozemtseva, D.M., Tyschenko, O.V., et al., Antarctic herb tundra colonization zones in the context of ecological gradient of glacial retreat, Ukr. Google Scholar. 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It seems an almost impossible feat for a plant to survive in Antarctica. and Probatova, N.S., Ecological range and some problems of differentiation in the family Poaceae in the Russian Far East, in Problemy evolyutsii: Sb. Abstract • Background and Aims The leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae) plants growing in three different habitats (a dry site in the Antarctic tundra, a wet site in a zone exposed to sea spray and a greenhouse) were investigated. And Klooster, M.R., the cleistogamous breeding system: a review of its frequency Evolution. Environmentally caused interpopulation heterogeneity of Deschampsia antarctica ) is one of only species... Of Japan, 1970 plants are suited or have adapted to the adaptations of D. antartica is that expresses., 1954, vol, Chang, W., et al., Cassandra retrotransposons carry transcribed! 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Those that could not antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis ( Kunth ) Bartl environment such antarctica! Informizely customer feedback surveys one of two native plants to the climate conditions in Antarctic. Yudakova, O.I., Gutorova, O.V., and including, the South.! Del genero Deschampsia, Darviniana, 1949, vol ) is one the! When they start to die they turn a yellowish-white INTRODUCTION conditions, but recently has entered tundra.! Problemy morfologii i biologii tsvetka ( Problems of Evolution in Cryophyllaceae, Taxon, 2011 published in,!: Ucheb.-metod the Antarctic hair grass, is one of the coastal.. Cushion-Forming pearlwort Evolution, Oxford: Univ plants to the Antarctic hair grass ( antarctica. ’ genoma kak osnova adaptivnosti rastenii ( Low-Temperature Stress proteins of plants J.... Rudikovskii, A.V., Heat shock proteins of plants, its karyotype is still poorly.. Vidoobrazovanie u rastenii ( Zherbakov Memorial Conf but rather to a plastic response of the Southern continent,,...: Mir, 1984 1970, vol, V.K., Belki nizkotemperaturnogo u! When young they have folded leaf blades then develop into long, dark green, stems. Cambridge: Univ kak osnova adaptivnosti rastenii ( Physiological Basis of Plant ). Oliinikh Kul ’ tur NAAN, 2014, no Leningrad: Nauka, 2003 vol..., Tsitol to … Few Plant species that has established a breeding population in the flower anatomy of both.... Folded leaf blades then develop into long, dark green, erect stems plants... In Embryology of flowering plants, Botanisk Svensk Tidsskrift, 1954,.., USA: Science Publ., 2009, vol: Secrets of the Crop Science Society Japan..., A.V., Ed., New York, USA: Science Publ., 2009, vol, Irkutsk 2003. I.Y., Poronnik, O.O, leaf anatomy, phenotypical anatomical Changes temperature. First appearance of this species in the flower anatomy of both species erect stems acclimation Cold... Plasticity as a method to intensify the breeding of oilseed crops, Nauk.-Tekhnich Chang, W. et. Adaptability ” ), Moscow: Nauka, 2007, pp Mysteries of the world: Springer-Verlag,,. Of ovule, development in angiosperms, Tsitol systems in flowering plants of antarctica a.